[450] According to a 2017 Pew Research Center survey, between 2010 and 2015 "an estimated 68 million babies were born to religiously unaffiliated mothers and roughly 42 million religiously unaffiliated died, meaning that the natural increase in the religiously unaffiliated population i.e., the number of births minus the number of deaths was 26 million over this period". But many people, disgusted by the role that some priests and nuns played in the killing frenzy, have shunned organized religion altogether, and many more have turned to Islam. At the end of 2017, the average age of the Israeli Druze was 27.9. [301], On the other hand, in 2010, the Pew Forum found "that statistical data for Muslim conversions is scarce and as per their little available information, there is no substantial net gain or loss of Muslims due to religious conversion. [290][291] According to 2011 census, Hinduism has become the fastest-growing religion in Australia since 2006[292] due to migration from India and Fiji. Beginning in July 637, the Muslims began a siege of Jerusalem which lasted for five (hardly bloodless) months before Jerusalem fell in February 638. [101] The main growth areas have been Asia and Africa, 39% and 32%, respectively, since 2000. Asia has the second largest Pentecostal-charismatic Christians of any continent, with the number growing from 10 million to 135 million between 1970 and 2000". Recent political debates over Muslim immigration and related issues have prompted many people to ask how many Muslims actually live in the United States. [285][286] According to a 2017 Pew Research Center survey, between 2010 and 2015 "an estimated 109 million babies were born to Hindu mothers and roughly 42 million Hindus died, meaning that the natural increase in the Hindus population i.e., the number of births minus the number of deaths was 67 million over this period". According to Pew Forum, Hindus are anticipated to continue to be concentrated primarily in the Indo-Pacific region in 2050. There is an ongoing silent migration away from the church of an estimated 3,500 individuals each and every day. [281] Hindus made up about 15% of the world's population in 2010. Muslims in the U.S. are not as numerous as the number of Americans who identify as Jewish by religion, according to our estimate. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts. [124][a] Countries with the largest numbers of Muslims converted to Christianity according to this study include Indonesia (6,500,000),[125] Nigeria (600,000),[125] Iran (500,000 versus only 500 in 1979),[125] the United States (450,000),[126] Ethiopia (400,000) and Algeria (380,000). Kalmykia is the only Buddhist majority region in Europe. ", "America Must Focus on Religious Persecution against Iranian Christian Converts", "Iranian Diaspora Christians in the American Midwest & Scotland: Historical Background, Present Realities, & Future Challenges", "The Untold Story of Syrian Kurdish Christians", "Sunni extremists threaten to kill Christian converts in north", "Religious conversion in Syria: Alawite and Druze believers", "Muslim refugees are converting to Christianity in Germany", "Christians are leaving the faith in droves and the trend isn't slowing down", "Projected Cumulative Change Due to Religious Switching, 20102050, p.44", "Christianity faces sharp decline as Americans are becoming even less affiliated with religion", "Leaving the Faith Because of the Faithful", "Christian faith plus Chinese productivity", "Public Opinion Survey of Iranian Americans", "Losing Our Religion: The Growth of The 'Nones', "The Persistent and Exceptional Intensity of American Religion: A Response to Recent Research", "Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth? Becoming a Muslim is not easy: people say hurtful things about your faith, and it's a struggle to fit in with pious-looking sisters who wear traditional Arabic dress. [426] However, the growth has not been even. [334] A 2007 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) report argued that some Muslim population projections are overestimated, as they assume that all descendants of Muslims will become Muslims even in cases of mixed parenthood. ", "Rise in paganism in Southeast Valley mirrors U.S. trend", "Projected Changes in the Populations of Adherents of Other Religions", "The Zarathushti World, a 2012 Demographic Picture", "Zoroastrians Keep the Faith, and Keep Dwindling", "Where we belong: The fight of Parsi women in interfaith marriages", "Parsi population dips by 22 per cent between 2001-2011: study", "Iraqi Kurds turn to Zoroastrianism as faith, identity entwine", "Hopes for Zoroastrianism revival in Kurdistan as first temple opens its doors", "Zoroastrian faith returns to Kurdistan in response to ISIL violence", "The curious rebirth of Zoroastrianism in Iraqi Kurdistan", "Hamazor Issue #2 2017: "Kurdistan reclaims its ancient Zoroastrian Faith", "Zoroastrian faith returns to Kurdistan in response to ISIS violence", "Kurdistan, the only government in Middle East that recognizes religious diversity", "Zoroastrian faith returns to Kurdistan in response to ISIL viole", "Dr. Todd M. Johnson " Institute on Culture, Religion & World Affairs Boston University", London: A Rising Island of Religion in a Secular Sea, "The Baha'i Faith 19571988: A Survey of Contemporary Developments", Religion on the Move! Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. [238] And according to Eric Kaufmann from Harvard University and University of London, Christian fundamentalism is expanding in the United States. And as the ranks of the nones have swelled,. Lesser populations are found in North America (7.6%) and the Middle East/North Africa (6.2%), while the smallest populations in Europe (2.0%), Australasia (1.6%), and Northeast Asia (0.9%). [199] Also according to the historian Daniel Pipes of Harvard University and University of Chicago,[200] and a researcher specializing in criticism of Islam, "reports of widespread conversions of Muslims to Christianity come from regions as disparate as Algeria, Albania, Syria, and Kurdistan",[133] in northern Iraq and Algeria, the conversions of Kurds and Berbers to Christianity are unusually high. [465] Outside of India, the largest Sikh communities are in the core Anglosphere, with 771,790 in Canada (2.1% Sikh),[466][467] 472,498 in the United States (0.1% Sikh),[470] 432,429 in the United Kingdom (0.7% Sikh),[471][472][473] 210,397 in Australia (0.8% Sikh),[474][475] and 40,908 in New Zealand (0.9% Sikh). Muslims who leave the faith often face abuse and violence - but a grassroots group that's touring American colleges is trying to help. [248] According to scholar Wang Zuoa, 500,000 Chinese converts to Protestantism annually. "I've confirmed it with. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. [440][441][442], Because Bah's do not represent the majority of the population in any country,[443] and most often represent only a tiny fraction of countries' total populations,[444] there are problems of under-reporting. But there are also states and counties with far fewer Muslims. : Demography and Politics in the Twenty-First Century, I argue that 97% of the world's population growth is taking place in the developing world, where 95% of people are religious. [480] The Sikh population has the lowest gender balance in India, with only 903 women per 1,000 men according to the 2011 Indian census,[481] although the sex ratio at birth for Indian Sikhs has rapidly improved from 130 male births per 100 female births in 2001 to 110 male births per 100 female births in 2019-21, now only slightly above the average for India as a whole (108 male births per female births). [94] According to a poll conducted by the Gallup Organization in 2006, Christianity has increased significantly in Japan, particularly among youth, and a high number of teens are becoming Christians. [336] The poll, conducted by the Netherlands-based GAMAAN (Group for Analyzing and Measuring Attitudes in Iran), using online polling to provide greater anonymity for respondents, surveyed 50,000 Iranians and found 32% identified as Shia, 5% as Sunni and 3% as Sufi Muslim. [384] In a 2008 conference on religion at Yale University's The MacMillan Center Initiative on Religion, Politics, and Society which hosted a speech from Hugh Kennedy, he stated forced conversions played little part in the history of the spread of the faith. [68] The study also suggested that by 2050, the global Christian population will change considerably. [26], Only in recent decades have surveys begun to measure changes in religious identity among individuals. It has a 95% confidence level and a 5% margin of error. According to Pew research, 13 percent of Americans today self-identify as "former Catholics," and many of them leave organized religion altogether. [476], Primarily for socio-economic reasons (Sikhs being the wealthiest and most educated of India's four major religious groups),[477] Indian Sikhs have the lowest adjusted growth rate of any major religious group in India, at 8.4% per decade (from 2001 to 2011), compared to the national rate of 17.7% per decade. [202] According to scholar Ladan Boroumand "Iran today is witnessing the highest rate of Christianization in the world",[203] and according to scholar Shay Khatiri of Johns Hopkins University "Islam is the fastest shrinking religion in there [Iran], while Christianity is growing the fastest",[204] and in 2018 "up to half a million Iranians are Christian converts from Muslim families, and most of these Christians are evangelicals",[205] and he adds "recent estimates claim that the number might have climbed up to somewhere between 1 million and 3 million". Arabs did not sack the city, and the Arab soldiers were apparently kept in tight control by their leaders. As teenagers and 20-somethings seek to earn a. [31] According to scholars of religious demographics, there are between 488 million,[32] 495 million,[33] and 535 million[34] Buddhists in the world. [312] According to The Huffington Post, "observers estimate that as many as 20,000 Americans convert to Islam annually. [75] Protestantism is growing primarily as a result of historic missionary activity and the recently high fertility rate in Africa,[76][77][38] and due primarily to conversion in China. [362][368][369][370] According to some scholars, the Jizya (poll tax) was the most important factor in the mass conversion to Islam, the tax paid by all non-Muslims (Dhimmis which translated means "protected persons") in Islamic empires[371][372][373][374] While other scholars oppose this belief, because the jizya was not of great value, and those who could not pay it were exempt from it. [54] By 2050, Christianity is expected to remain the majority of population and the largest religious group in Latin America and Caribbean (89%),[55] North America (66%),[56] Europe (65.2%)[57] and Sub Saharan Africa (59%). [319] Between 2010 and 2015, with exception of the Middle East and North Africa, Muslim fertility of any other region in the world was higher than the rate for the region as a whole. [309] Studies estimated about 30,000 converting to Islam annually in the United States. Druze is a major religion in the Levant region. [495][496] From the 10th century onwards,[497] Zoroastrians emigrated to Gujarat, India where they found asylum from unjust persecutions and since then are called Parsi, since Indians called Persia Faras and hence named them Parsi. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. In addition, those with religious beliefs tend to have higher birth rates than the secular population, with fundamentalists having far larger families. [327] While both religions will grow but Muslim population will exceed the Christian population and by 2100, Muslim population (35%) will be 1% more than the Christian population (34%). [70] On the other hand, Central and Eastern European countries did not experience a decline in the percentage of Christians, as the proportion of Christians in these countries have mostly been stable or even increasing. See also "Merely speaking of a 'Muslim community in France' can be misleading and inaccurate: like every immigrant population, Muslims in France exhibit strong cleavages based on the country of their origin, their social background, political orientation and ideology, and the, Stark, Rodney. In this . From the late 1920s to the late 1980s the religion was harassed and banned in the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc,[427][428][429] and then again from the 1970s into the 1990s across some countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Statistics commonly measure the absolute number of adherents, the percentage of the absolute growth per-year, and the growth of converts in the world. Muslims take 2.5% out of their salaries and use the funds give to the needy. 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Fewer identify as Christian (22%), and an additional one-in-five (21%) identify with a wide variety of smaller groups, including faiths such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, or as generally spiritual.. [507], There has been recent conversions of Kurds from Islam to Zoroastrianism in Kurdistan for different reasons, including a sense of national and/or ethnic identity or for recent conflicts with radical Muslims, which had been enthusiastically received by Zoroastrians worldwide. For example, federal legislation prohibits and criminalizes non-Muslims for preaching or converting Muslims into their religion, even though the reverse is allowed. [505] A slower birthrate than deathrate accounts for the rest: as of 2001, Parsis over the age of 60 make up for 31% of the community. As per the Pew Research study, Muslim populations will grow in absolute number in all regions of the world between 2010 and 2050. The Parsis will then cease to be called a community and will be labeled a 'tribe'. Fertility Declining in the Middle East and North Africa, Recent changes and the future of fertility in Iran, Demographic implosion in Muslim societies, "Book excerpt: The 'Muslim tide' that wasn't", "Center wins NEH grant to study Salafism", "Uproar in Germany Over Salafi Drive to Hand Out Millions of Qurans", "Arab Invasions: The First Islamic Empire | History Today", "BBC - Religions - Islam: Early rise of Islam (632-700)", "BBC World Service | The Story of Africa", "Blent zdemir - Political Use of Conversion in the Nineteenth Century Ottoman Context: Some Cases From Salonica", "The Rights of Non-Muslims in Islam (part 1 of 13): An Islamic Basis". [359] By 2050 Asia will be home to (52.8%) of the world's Muslims, and about (24.3%) of the world's Muslims will live in Sub Saharan Africa, (20%) the Middle East and North Africa, and 2% in Europe. [93] Professor Aris Ananta reported in 2008 that "anecdotal evidence suggests that more Buddhist Chinese have become Christians as they increased their standards of education, because Christianity, unlike Buddhism, is often associated with 'modernity' and Western education", although there are no stats to support this. [328] By the end of 2100 Muslims are expected to outnumber Christians. Here are other chief findings from the report: 1. Changes in son preference, ultrasound use and fertility", "Census shocker: Sikhs report lowest sex ratio", "India's Sex Ratio at Birth Begins To Normalize", "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables Religion (108), Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (11), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey", "What is the Fastest Growing Religion in Australia? The majority of post-9/11 converts are women, according to experts. Protestantism is one of the most dynamic religious movements in the contemporary world. Professor Eric Kaufmann, whose academic specialization is how demography affects irreligion/religion/politics, wrote in 2012: In my book, Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth? [279] Syria is home to the largest Druzite community in the world, according to a study published by Columbia University, the number of Syrian Druze increased from 684,000 in 2010 to 730,000 in mid of 2018. [45], According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there are 2.2billion Christians around the world in 2010,[47] up from about 600 million in 1910. The dream reflects your lonely state of mind or fear of trusting people around you. According to Johnson and Grim, Buddhism has grown from a total of 138 million adherents in 1910, of which 137million were in Asia, to 495million in 2010, of which 487million are in Asia. [280] The Lebanese Druze have the lowest fertility among all age groups after the Lebanese Christians. The Sensitive Stuff [518] Adherence data is largely compiled from census and surveys. [249] According to the Council on Foreign Relations the "number of Chinese Protestants has grown by an average of 10 percent annually since 1979". Officially, Arab states have major Muslim populations, varying from around 60% in Lebanon to almost 100% in Jordan or Saudi Arabia. replacement level. [501][502] According to the National Commission for Minorities, there are a "variety of causes that are responsible for this steady decline in the population of the community", the most significant of which were childlessness and migration-[503] Demographic trends project that by the year 2020 the Parsis will number only 23,000. Wealthy Neighborhoods Saw the Most People Leave Every borough experienced a spike in people moving out last year, but Manhattan saw the . On the other hand, the secular West and East Asia have very low fertility and rapidly aging populations. [98] According to Pew Research Center the number of Catholics in Africa has increased from one million in 1901 to 329,882,000 in 2010. "God's Battalions: The Case for the Crusades". [65], The significant growth of Christianity in non-Western countries led to regional distribution changes of Christians. In the Diaspora, in almost every country the Jewish population in general is either declining or steady, but Orthodox and Haredi Jewish communities, whose members often shun birth control for religious reasons, have experienced rapid population growth. By. The UN concluded that in the first eight months of 2014, at least 9,347 civilians had been killed and at least 17,386 wounded. The number of adherents of the Chinese traditional religion is difficult to count, because of:[45], Chinese rarely use the term "religion" for their popular religious practices, and they also do not utilize a vocabulary that they "believe in" gods or truths. [299] From 1990 to 2010, the global Muslim population increased at an average annual rate of 2.2%. [90] Some reports also show that the number of the Chinese Indonesians Christians have increased,[91][92] according to scholar Gavin W. Jones of Australian National University, "there has been a rapid growth in the number of Chinese Christians" in Indonesia, and "conversion of Chinese to Christianity accelerated in the 1960s, especially in East Java, and for Indonesia as a whole the proportion of Chinese who were Catholics rose from 2 percent in 1957 to 6 percent in 1969". In the aftermath of the Cold War, one could say that Europe needed a new archetypal enemy, and research shows that Muslim immigrants gradually took on that status. Especially in the rural areas, the speed and scale of its development are much faster and larger than is the case with Buddhism and Christianity [] in Zhejiang province, where Christianity is better established than elsewhere, temples of folk religion are usually twenty or even a hundred times as numerous as Christian church buildings. [1] According to them, there was a fast annual growth of Buddhism in Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon and several Western European countries (19102010). However John L. Esposito, a scholar on the subject of Islam in The Oxford History of Islam states that the spread of Islam "was often peaceful and sometimes even received favorably by Christians". Pew Research projections, over time fertility rates generally converge toward the [4][5][6] It is projected that birth rates rather than conversion will prove the main factor in the growth of any given religion. [253], It's been reported also that increasing numbers of young people or educated people are becoming Christians in several countries such as China,[254][255] Hong Kong,[256] Indonesia,[257] Iran,[258][259] Japan,[95] Singapore,[260][261][262] and South Korea. [24] According to a study published in 2011 by Pew Research, what little information is available may suggests that religious conversion has no net impact on the Muslim population, as the number of people who convert to Islam is roughly similar to those who leave Islam. [52] Christians have 2.7 children per woman, which is above replacement level (2.1). Numbers, Facts and Trends Shaping Your World, Size & Demographic Characteristics of Religious Groups, Muslims are a growing presence in U.S., but still face negative views from the public, Republicans account for a small but steady share of U.S. Muslims, The share of Americans who leave Islam is offset by those who become Muslim, New estimates show U.S. Muslim population continues to grow, 60% of Americans Would Be Uncomfortable With Provider Relying on AI in Their Own Health Care, Gender pay gap in U.S. hasnt changed much in two decades. . Looking at suicide as a share of total death is one way to compare differences across the world. The WRD is edited by demographers Todd M. Johnson[520] and Brian J.