It opens on a very high note. According to the biblical narrative these judges led Israel from the end of the conquest of Canaan until the beginning of the monarchy. Shamgar, a mighty fighter in Judges (3:31; 5:6), is designated ben anat, "the son of Anath." The name "Shamgar" is non-Israelite . 6. The fact that the years given to Tola (23) and Jair (22) are almost the same is also interesting and may indicate parallel judgeships. Judges 6 contains the Song of Deborah(she was judge around the time of Shamgar). Jabin sent to the king of Shimron, the king of Achshaph, the kings in the . We know that his death occurred at the time of the loss of the ark to the Philistines and immediately preceded the judgeship of Samuel. Shamgar, son of Anath, is mentioned in just two verses in the BibleJudges 3:31 and Judges 5:6but we remember him because (1) he is named in the Scriptures and (2) he did mighty acts according to Gods command. Descent via Ithamar younger of Aarons 2 surviving sons Samuel took over from Eli. I see two possible sources for this number. Furthermore, in another instance that Shamgar was mentioned in the Bible, this associated the man with the collapse and difficulty in the life of the Israelites. Article Images Copyright 2023 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated. The book of Judges ends with two stories (and the book of Ruth might be considered a third) that take place in this period; but, on the surface, we are not given any specifics that allow us to tie these events to the time of a specific judge. An oxgoad was a strong stick about eight to 10 feet long and six inches in diameter. This means that there is a potential to overlap them, and this option may be supported by the fact that Josephus leaves Tola out of his account. [8] This article is, in fact, my second attempt at a Judges chronology. Gideon was a simple farmer when God called him to save the Jewish people. (Honestly, I dont have the time to break down all of your stats.) What Shamgar taught me was unreal. Why did God give Israel "judges" (Acts 13:20) for the And He raised up twelve judges to bring salvation to the people (Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah, Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson). The book of Judges presents an interesting puzzle in the in the chronology of Israel. The name of his firstborn was Joel, and the name of his second, But it's safe to assume that Shamgar actually killed the Philistines under the influence of the Spirit because it was the way God used the others, ( Judges 15:14; Judges 3:10 ). The period of the Judges therefore spanned 400 years (40 + 360 yrs). (22 years)(Judg 10:3-5) During this period, the archaeological evidence for Israel is scant. So Samuel anointed Saul in 1043BC to be King. The capture of the ark was an event of significant importance and had it occurred during the Judges period it would have been recorded there. This solution achieves the necessary compression. Some translations have inserted numbers there, but its important to understand that those numbers do not appear in any extant manuscripts. Their unholy behavior caused Israels elders to come to Samuel and say, Behold, you are old and your sons do not walk in your ways. In the days of Shamgar, son of Anath, in the days of Jael, the highways were abandoned, and travellers kept to the byways. It only states that, the children of Israel grew stronger and stronger against Jabin king of Canaan, until they had destroyed [him] (Judges 4:24). After reading the account of Ehud and the killing of about 10,000 Moabites, it is normal to see Shamgar and the Philistines he killed as simply part of a list of the accomplishments of a man of war. On top of everything, the era of the Judges was a period of almost continual warfare a state of affairs that would continue until the time of Samuel, the last of the Judges. Everyone did what was right in his own eyes." As vassals, the cities of the Philistine pentapolis would have been required to send tribute to Pharoah and their oppression of Israel may be seen simply as a way to acquire resources to meet their Pharaonic obligations. 11. 2. Ibzan The following is a presentation from Council 5207 Lecturer, John F. Meyer: Judges in the Old Testament were not magistrates, but military leaders chosen by God to aid the Israelites in times of external danger. In chapters 1 through 21 are about a 300 to 350 year historical period that includes a repetitive cycle that Israel goes through as a result of their disobedience to the Word of God. Nations, cultures, arts, civilizationsthese are mortal, and their life is to ours as the life of a gnat. Of particular relevance here are those conducted at Hazor which confirm that it was ruled by an, In 2019 a pottery sherd was recovered from the Khirbet al-RaI dig site in central Israel that included the name Yrbl (Jerubbaal), the alternative name for Gideon. They ruled over the Ancient State of Israel between 1150 BC until 1025 BC ca., until the anointing of Saul, the first King of Israel and thus, the beginning of the monarchy period in the Holy Land. While exact dates are not possible, I do believe that there are clues as to where to place these events on the timeline. ), Deborah (1237-1198 B.C. Son of Joash which in Hebrew means: great warrior - Gideon was from the tribe of Manasseh. One of the Judges; son of Anath. From that point, Option 1.2 shifts approximately 5 years later in each of the 40-year intervals between judges (10 years later in the 80 year interval after Ehud). You can find the original, 2018 version here. 13. how many years did shamgar judge israel. The Philistines came back with a vengeance and remained the main enemy of Israel for the next 100 years. During his reign, the eastern border quieted down but the western one heated up. The name occurs twice: Unlike the descriptions of Biblical Judges, the first reference to Shamgar has no introduction, conclusion, or reference to the length of reign,[3] and it is not said that he judged Israel. We are not given specific reign lengths for each judge as we are in the late period. Mistakenly believing that it would insure themselves of victory, they took the Ark out to war. Sequence of events and locations: a. In fact, Josephus quotes him as saying, for ABOVE three hundred years. ), but the Bible does not say; it may have been a cultural influence on his parents. Also, if the Berlin Pedestal can be dated as early as Thutmose III, then this mention of Israel would predate even Moses, much less the arrival in Canaan. There are really only two choices: Reduce the time from the start of the conquest to the first oppression from the 35 years given by Josephus to a mere 17 years. As chosen ones of God, He sometimes gives us abilities beyond our natural talents in service to Him (Exodus 31: 3-5). Shamgar was the son of Anath and from the tribe of Benjamite. 3. of These deliverances are separated by a period of peace, ostensibly the time required for the judge to pass on and the people to fall back into sin. Using an ox goad, he was able to slaughter 600 foreign invaders in the region. The limited amount of information available for this period makes the creation of a single, uncontested timeline impossible. The information on him is sparse but God felt him worth including. Ruled or Judged Israel for 40 years 1191BC-1151BC Judges 6:1-8:35. She used to sit under the palm of Deborah between Ramah and Bethel in the hill country of Ephraim; and the Israelites came up to her for judgment. We find in (1 Sam 8:1-2) that Samuel made his two sons (Joel and Abijah) judges when he became old, but this appears to have been very short-lived as they were corrupt. In 1184 BC Barak comes to Deborah from Kedesh-Naphtali. Using an ox goad, he was able to slaughter 600 foreign invaders in the region. The other two options can be represented graphically as shown below in Figures 5 and 6. They moved it to yet another city and the same plague broke out there. The verse says: And Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life (7:15). In this context, Jabin is able to carve out an independent kingdom in Canaan and oppress the Israelites. On this timeline the Exodus occurs in the reign of Amenhotep II, somewhere after his Year 9, his last recorded campaign in Canaan. In the books of Samuel, Shammah was presented as one of the Three, which was a group of warriors during the time of King David. Judges 3:31, Joshua Gods warrior and the fall of Jericho, The two scouts or spies were Joshuas eyes, Barak the commander of the army, under Deborah the fourth Judge of Israel, Gideon, the fifth Judge of Israel, with Gods help gets 300 men, Ruth, the great-grandmother of King David, Eli the high priest and 9th Judge of Israel, Jephthah the Gileadite the 10th Judge of Israel, The only daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite, the 10th Judge of Israel, Delilah New Ropes, Samson the 14th Judge of Israel, Delilah seeks, Samson the 14th Judge of Israel, Samson sleeps, Samson the 14th Judge of Israel, Death of Samson, the 14th Judge of Israel, Samuel the fifteenth Judge of Israel anoints two kings, Samuel the 15th Judge of Israel and also a Prophet, Background Information Joshua and Judges of Israel, Next Module Three Kings Saul, David & Solomon . He used an unlikely and ordinary weapon to defeat 600 big guys. Notice Shamgar used what was at hand, an oxgoad, as he had no sword, and with God he got the victory over the enemy of God and his people, the Philistines. We do not respect them for their follies, we respect them for their faith. However, such leaders come about perhaps not even once in a thousand years. Have you ever thought, no one will remember me? Also, Hazor was destroyed approximately 1200 BC, or close to the time where we will place Deborah and Barak. On top of his technological advantage, he aligned himself with the greatest General of the time, Sisera, who had never lost a battle. Shamgar, son of Anath, was the third Judge of Israel. Then God asked Samuel later to anoint David as king. Jerub-Baal in Hebrew means: let baal contend. As shown above in Figure 1, this math gives us 396 years in which to fit Joshua, 450 years of judges, Samuel, and Saul. The implication from this solution is that not only was Samson in parallel with the 40-year Philistine oppression, but so were Elon and Abdon, and to some extent Ibzan. The dating of this inscription is disputed, but it may date as early as Thutmose III or as late as Rameses II. (40 years)(1 Sam 1:1-4:18) Figure 9: The Judges in the New Chronology. After Deborah, eight different Judges ruled Israel over approximately the next 120 years. Judges 3:31 says, "After Ehud came Shamgar son of Anath, who struck down six hundred Philistines with an oxgoad. 31). spokesmen, and their desire for a human ruler whom 4a. As a final note, I feel the approach provided in Figure 5 and 6 is superior to that of Ussher in that the archaeological evidence aligns with a later date for Deborah and Barak as noted in the discussion of the Merneptah stele and Hazor destruction layer. The name Samuel means "God has heard." A Nazarite from birth, Samuel began service as . Judge Shamgar, in the Book of Judges, was a great man who was able to drive away the Philistines and prevent them from invading the Israelite regions. Abijah; they were judges in Beersheba. out, and was punished by God, who put Israel in bondage to invaders. Each of them acted in selfish and disobedient ways, yet it was their faith for which they are commended. This is, incidentally, the first time that the Philistines are mentioned in the context of a biblical event. He was the master of covert operations, hitting the Philistines hard without them realizing it was he who did it. Shamgar was full of God's Anointing. They began to infiltrate, kidnap Jews and extort money in short, to engage in all of the time-honored practices of terrorism. The next oppression of 18 years is under Eglon, king of Moab. Israel began to worship the idols of the pagan nations that it didn't drive We do have a number of inscriptions from Egypt and Israels neighbors that confirms their presence in this time period. (7 years)(Judg 12:8-10) It is questionable whether Abimelech should count as a judge. The Jews had begun settling into the Promised Land and building cities. When aligned with the orthodox chronology for Egypt, this timeline presents the usual problems in alignment. This cycle is particularly evident in the Early Period. The name occurs twice: at the first mention, Shamgar is identified as a man who repelled Philistine incursions into Israelite regions, and slaughtered 600 of the invaders with an ox goad ( Judges 3:31 ); [1] A flat, curved blade covered the other end, and it was used to clean a plow. I see the Book of Judges as consisting of four distinct segments: The Introduction, the Early Period, the Late Period, and the Appendix. For those not familiar with it, the New Chronology was proposed as a solution to the many dark ages in ancient history and specifically to internal inconsistencies in the chronology of the Third Intermediate Period. Judge Shamgar, in the Book of Judges, was a great man who was able to drive away the Philistines and prevent them from invading the Israelite regions. He was imprisoned and blinded by the Philistines, causing great despair among the Jews whose hope for salvation from the heavy hand of their most hated enemy had now evaporated. The Midianites were, according to modern scholarship, a loose confederation of tribes that lived southeast of Israel on the eastern side of the Gulf of Aqaba. Amose makes his first campaign into Canaan and perhaps as far as Syria in the 22nd year of his reign. This may be the case with Othniel, Ehud, and Shamgar as well. Also of note, and key to constructing a proper chronology, is that in the Late Period the time allotted to each judge changes from being a spacer between oppressions and likely overlaps those oppressions. It also places the 40-year oppression and Samson in parallel with Eli. All rights reserved. Thus, when we read about the actions of the Philistines we should see an Egyptian hand pulling the strings. The New Chronology is perhaps best known from the film Patterns of Evidence: Exodus where its alignment between archaeology and history was highlighted. It was only in order that the generations of the people of Israel might know war, to teach war to those who had not known it before (italics added for emphasis). These minor judges were: Shamgar 3:31, Tola 10:1-2, Jair 10:3-5, Ibzan 12:8-10, Elon 12:11-12, and. (8 years)(Judg 12:13-15) Copyright & The Destiny Foundation. However, given the apparently more complete records for the Late Period, I believe it will be more valuable to start at the end the death of Saul and work backward to Abimilech. The destruction has been dated based on the recovery of scarabs naming the Egyptian Pharoah Sheshi of the early Hyksos period. Eight years: It was many years of bondage before Israel cried out unto the LORD. Shamgar was a minor judge in Israel and little is known about him. On the downside, he leaves out one judge (Tola) entirely and fails to provide a number for another (Abdon). Sisera came to the tent of a man named Heber the Kenite (Judges 4:11), whose wife, Yael, seduced him and then drove a peg through his temple with a hammer. When God commanded them to conquer and wipe out the nations who inhabited Canaan, they did not completely obey Him when He told them to obliterate the foreigners. 2So it was that the ark remained in Kirjath Jearim a long time, it was there twenty years. Hannover Turismo Finally, they ruled on opposite sides of the Jordan which adds to the plausibility of parallel reigns. they have rejected Me, that I should not reign over them." The political situation in the Levant during this period is largely one of Egyptian control. The Philistines were, however, vassals of the Egyptian Pharoah. and this cycle of idolatry - bondage - deliverance repeated itself for 450 Most of the inscription concerns a war with Libya but the last three lines describe a campaign in Canaan: The Berlin Pedestal. Toward the end of Elis lifetime, the Jewish people went to war with the Philistines (I Samuel 4). But from this time forward, Canaan is back in the Egyptian sphere of influence. It's incredibly full of people, places, and events. [8], The Bible also indicates that he was the "son" of Anath (the name of a Canaanite deity). Phone Toll Free: 877-966-7300 or 816-584-3077, [This article continues after a message from the authors], These Articles are Written by the Publishers of, Amazing Bible Timeline with World History 2023. 7. Before Joshua died he conquered as much as ninety percent of the Land, divided it among the tribes and disbanded the great army he had assembled. The Book of Judges itself suggests the solution; it implies that certain periods overlapped in time.- For instance, Judges 3:30-4:1 implies that Shamgar judged during the 80 years of peace following Ehud's deliverance from the Moabites. Ehud Lisa Loraine Baker is the multiple award-winning author of Someplace to be Somebody. Judges 3:31 - "After Ehud came Shamgar son of Anath, who struck down six hundred Philistines with an ox goad. 7. He ruled for an unknown number of years. Tola Shamgar: An Overlooked Hero in Judges The book of Judges can be difficult to read and retain. how many years did shamgar judge israel. Finally, our right-hand bookend rests on the death of Saul. v. 6). I hope this isnt a waste of time. 16. Finally, we learn that Samson judges Israel for 20 years (Judges 16:31). This gives a total of 48 years, Place Tola and Jair in parallel and in sequence with the oppression. Putting these pieces together, Samson was born, grew to adulthood, judged for 20 years, and died within the 40-year period of Philistine oppression. - Thus, the 410 years for the events in judges is at least 75 years too long. The name Syria-of-Rivers given in the Septuagint is perhaps the most revealing and places this kingdom between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in what today is eastern Syria and western Iraq.